空論上の砂、楼閣上の机。

The Castle of Indolence

接続詞の without

現代英文法のバイブルといえば Huddleston & Pullum (2002) ですが、第1章ではその特徴として次のようなものが挙げられています。

The reader will likewise find nothing of the traditional distinction between since as a preposition (I haven’t seen them since Easter), since as an adverb (I haven’t seen them since), and since as a subordinating conjunction (I haven’t seen them since they went overseas), because we have concluded that this multiplication of categories for a single word with a single meaning makes no sense; we claim that since belongs to the same category (preposition) in all of its occurrences.

もちろんこの立場で言えば、実は「接続詞の without」という本稿のタイトルは不適切なのですが、このような用法があること自体に注意を向けるという意味では有用な表現だとは思っています。

ところで、私はてっきり接続詞の without は必ず that を義務的に従えるのかと思い込んでいたのですが、北村先生のクイズをきっかけにどうやらそうではなかったことを知りました(もちろんこのクイズでは前提知識を必要とせずちゃんと構造的に分かるようになっているので問題はないのですが)。調べてみると OED にはたくさん用例が載っていたので、メモしておきます。

2 . Hence, by omission of that, simply as a conjunction: If..not, except, unless. Also, chiefly in U.S. dial. use: unless, without its being the case that. Formerly common in literary use, most frequently with verb in subjunctive; later colloq. (‘not in use, except in conversation’ J. 1755) or arch., and now chiefly illiterate. Often replaceable by the const. with gerund (B. 11), e.g. without he be compelled = ‘without being compelled’; esp. with clause referring to an attendant circumstance or result rather than a condition, as in quot. 1467.
1393: Langl. P. Pl. C. v. 176 “Quath conscience to þe kynge with-oute þe comune help, Hit is ful hard..þer-to hit to brynge.”
1467: Marg. Paston in P. Lett. II. 308 “If I wer ther withought I had the mor..wurchepfull persones abought me..it shuld be to me but a vylney.”
1477: Stonor Papers (Camden) II. 28 “She is displeside and I know nat whereffore, with owte hir olde sekenes be fallen on hir agayn.”
1523: Ld. Berners Froiss. (1812) I. xii. 12 “All the moost parte of the realme were right joyouse, withoute it were a fewe parsones..fauourable to syr Hewe Spencer.”
1534: More Comf. agst. Trib. i. xii. (1553) Ciijb, “Good workes to godwarde woorketh no man without god woorke with him.”
1565: Reg. Privy Council Scot. I. 410 “[He] will nocht deliver..the said hors without he be compellit.”
1591: Shakes. Com. Err. iii. ii. 92 “Such a one, as a man may not speake of, without he say sir reuerence.”
a1643: J. Shute Judgem. & Mercy (1645) 129 “He may barke, but he cannot bite without a man come within his reach.”
1695: Congreve Love for L. iv. i, “If he can’t be cur’d without I suck the Poyson from his Wounds.”
1754: J. Shebbeare Matrimony (1766) I. 143 “Do not think of marrying this young Lady, without you are convinced you can love her.”
1787: Beattie Scoticisms 101, “I will not go without I am paid for it. Scottish and obsolete and vulgar English.”
1802: E. Parsons Myst. Visit III. 51, “I shall never intrude without you invite me.”
a1814: Fam. Politics ii. i. in New Brit. Theatre II. 207 “I’m but a working woman, and cannot live without I gets my due.”
1834: T. Arnold Let. 14 Apr. in Stanley Life (1898) I. vii. 328 “Not allowing God’s seal, without it be countersigned by one of their own forging.”
1859: Tennyson Elaine 1411 “Not without She wills it.”
1860: O. W. Holmes Elsie V. xv. (1891) 211, “I know these people.., so as all the science in the world can’t know them, without it takes time about it.”
1867: J. R. Lowell Biglow Papers 2nd Ser. p. lvii, “I don’t git much done ’thout I bogue right in along’th my men.”
1868: J. H. Blunt Ref. Ch. Eng. I. 437 “No canons were to become law without they were assented to..by the crown.”
1887: Daily News 21 Nov. 2/7 “Without a great change takes place the meeting is sure to commence to-morrow.”
1903: ‘T. Collins’ Such is Life (1937) i. 51 “A man shouldn’t make a dog of his self without he’s well paid for it. That’s my religion.”
1955: F. O’Connor Wise Blood iii. 52 “Everything she looked at was that child... She couldn’t lie with that man without she saw it.”
1962: E. Albee Who’s Afraid of V. Woolf? (1964) i. 51 “Man can put up with only so much without he descends a rung or two on the old evolutionary ladder.”
1984: A. Carter Nights at Circus ii. 46 “No two deaths without a third follows.”